Funding the border
This is an incomplete list of some recent (since 2009) announcements on funding to help securitise the Calais border. Most of them involve payments from the UK to France, but there are also some examples of EU funding, as well as internal French schemes.
2009 UK funding
UK provides £15 million, largely to pay for new border control technology called for in the new ‘Arrangement’ agreed on in the France-UK Summit 2009.
2014-20 EU AMIF funding
The European Union’s “Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF)” is set up with a total of €3.137 billion to spend across Europe in a seven year period (2014-2020). It includes: “€266 million earmarked for France” and “over €370 million earmarked for the UK”.
From this funding, according to Reuters, in 2015 France received €20 million and the UK received €27 million in emergency funding. This was not only for Calais, but “both of these programmes will, amongst other things, also deal with the situation in Calais.”
The UK provides an overview of how it used AMIF funds. The majority appears to be deportation-related, although there are also other projects.
2014 UK invests £3m in upgrading vehicle scanning
2014 European emergency funding for Jules Ferry centre
European Commission grants €3.8 million in “emergency funding” to co-finance the creation of the “Jules Ferry” day centre.
July 2014: €400,000 announced by Mayor Natacha Bouchart for 20 cameras around Calais
This is not specifically aimed at migrants but apparently at ‘disorder’ caused by people leaving nightclubs. Initially at key spots around Calais-nord with planned expansion later to sites such as the shopping centre and beach. The company awarded the contract was ‘Serpollet’.
September 2014: €15m Joint Fund for Calais established by Bernard Cazenueve (then French prime minister) and Theresa May
Answering a parliamentary question about this fund in January 2015, then immigration minister James Brokenshire said:
“We are not providing financial support for any day centres. Our financial support is focused on security at Calais and on confronting the organised criminality that seeks to take advantage of those trying to come to the UK. The juxtaposed controls absolutely benefit this country and we have no plans to change that.
“Although the specific details have not yet been finalised, we estimate that out of the figure of £10.5m; £2.38m is likely to be allocated to Government Departments, and £8.12m is likely to be allocated to the private, public and voluntary sector. The remaining (£1.5m) balance is not yet committed and different options are currently being considered.
“Of the £10.5m committed to the Joint Fund, £6.3m has been opened for private tender.”
In response to a Freedom of Information request, the Home Office refused to supply details of the companies who received this money.
In July 2015, the Home Office provided to parliament a breakdown of expenditure from the Joint Fund and other sources at that time:
1. Redesign of the Calais port tourism zone (including relocating BF into 14 new booths, up from 10 currently) = €2.45
2. Rocade fencing along the entry road and to protect the approaches to Calais port = €5.1
3. Additional cameras for Calais port perimeter = €0.5
4. Extension of Calais port coach hall controls and offices (+ UK VAT). Increases coach controls from 8 to 13 in the coach hall (13 – 17 overall including the secondary coach hall)= €3.1
5. Coquelles perimeter security (complete) = €0.93
6. Ecluse Carnot fencing for the lock area in Calais port. = €0.06
7. Grant offer for security measures at Dunkerque (complete) = €0.25
8. Communications work including Op Eros and translators to support PAF = €0.165
9. Contingency for trafficked migrants (as agreed at the Migration Committe on 11 June) = €0.75
10. Secure freight queuing at Calais port (truck buffer zone) = €2.5
Total estimated cost from Joint Fund = €15.805m
Additional Activity (not currently part of Joint Fund)
11. Additional security infrastructure at Coquelles to secure Channel Tunnel = Final Cost To Be Confirmed.
12. Additional funding for Calais Truck Buffer Zone to meet the total €4.5m cost = €2m
July 2015: UK announces a further £9 million Calais funding
£2m to be spent on a “secure zone” in Calais for UK-bound lorries (NB: this may be the “Calais Track Buffer Zone” mentioned above), and £7m for other security measures.
Here is a breakdown provided by the Home Office to parliament in July 2015 of the
August 2015: Another €5 million announced in “Managing Migratory Flows in Calais” Joint Declaration
UK pledges to pay £3.5m (€5 million) per year over two years towards the measures in the deal, in addition to money previously pledged. The statement explains there will be an extra 500 police from the UK and France, as well as additional freight search teams, dogs and UK-funded deportation flights.
31 August 2015: European Commission announces €5.2 million in “emergency assistance”
For work on the area around the Jules Ferry centre and to fund the “transport” of refugees and migrants from Calais to other locations in France.
March 2016: France-UK Summit announces another £17 million / €22 million for Calais security
The same statement also announces a €2 billion Anglo-French collaboration on a new military drone programme, called the Future Combat Air System. The funding will go to arms companies including Britain’s BAE Systems and Rolls-Royce (UK) and Dassault Aviation, Safran and Thales (France).
October 2016: Another £36m UK funding announced
To cover the jungle eviction, but also boosting port security again, and more.